The Problems with Soft Deletes

If you have been in web development for a while you might have stumbled upon the concept of soft deletes. It is a common pattern (or more exactly, anti-pattern) in database management that allows deleting items from a database while keeping the records there.

The implementation of this pattern usually involves a nullable timestamp column called deleted_at. When we delete a record, instead of a DELETE query we just simply run an UPDATE one and set that column to the current timestamp. Then, deleted records can be hidden from the exposed public API by adding a where clause like the following to every query:

SELECT FROM table WHERE deleted_at IS NULL

A challenge while implementing this is that this clause must be added globally. If you are using raw SQL queries this is hard to maintain and error-prone. But most frameworks have robust SQL abstractions that eliminate that issue by using some plugin or library.

Benefits & Drawbacks

This technique has some benefits, like the ability to restore records that have been accidentally removed, keep historical data for reporting purposes and avoid dealing with referential constraints when deleting records in relational databases. However, in engineering, not all that is shiny is gold. Although there are some benefits to this technique, there are also some important drawbacks.

The first drawback is that there is a performance penalty your database has to pay for this. Even if the deleted_at column is indexed, still, a full table scan is needed to fetch non-deleted records. This of course harms performance exponentially as your database table grows. Some people say this is the most fundamental problem with this approach. I think I tend to agree, although the impact of that drawback varies from application to application.

But, I think there are at least two more troubling issues here. One has to do with referential integrity and another one with domain modelling.

Soft Deletes obscure referential integrity

When you soft delete a record in your database, none of the foreign key constraints you have in place will be checked. This is seen as a feature for many. “No foreign key constraint violation errors on my queries. Yaaay!

The problem is that foreign key constraints are there for a very important reason. Bypassing them is often unwise. Let’s see a concrete example.

Let’s think of a articles table and a tags table. Articles represent blog posts, and you can tag them with any tag you would like. The relationship between tags and articles is a many-to-many one, so you will model this in a article_tags pivot table. Simple.

Now let’s say you go and delete a tag from the system. You get a massive Constraint Violation Error because that tag is being used in the article_tags table to tag some articles. You need to do something with those references first. Ignoring that kind of problem is never good because then you could have inconsistencies in your data model. You should first correct the references in article_tags and then delete the actual tag.

How to correct the references will depend on your use case or domain. For instance, when does it make sense to remove a tag? Maybe there is a tag called DDD and another called Domain Driven Design in your blog. You want to normalize this, and you decide that DDD will be removed and replaced with Domain Driven Design. Your delete then should look for the DDD tag in article_tags and replace them with the Domain Driven Design one, and then you proceed to delete the DDD tag from the tags table.

Or maybe you just don’t want to normalize anything and just delete a tag and all of it’s references. In that case, you should delete the references first, and then the actual tags.

Your program must have this knowledge baked in itself because these are the concepts that power your domain, which takes us to the next topic.

⚠️ Be careful to use Foreign Keys with CASCADE DELETE. They are very convenient, but they can massively obscure things and also delete records that you might not want to delete. Again, better to have the knowledge baked into your program.

Soft Deletes obscure business/domain logic

There are some things in your domain or problem space that will require careful consideration when it comes to deletion. For instance, in my current company, we offer finance to customers based on something we call a Finance Plan. A finance plan is just a set of constraints that define the details of a loan (duration, rate, minimal payment, etc). Finance plans are then referenced by our applications (these represent credit applications from customers).

So, natural question. Should we be able to delete finance plans? Not if we have created an application with it. Because the finance plan tied to an application now needs to be kept for historical reasons. We can go even further. Should we be able to modify finance plans? No, because any modification to a finance plan would be a new finance plan. We don’t want to be changing the number of months of an already approved application, right? If it was approved for 12 months, we can’t change that to 24.

Now, what happens when we want to decommission a finance plan? This means we want to prevent it from being displayed so applications cannot use it. We just simply take that concept and convert it into a business action, and we add a column on the database to track that (decommissioned_at). This would work very similarly to the soft delete column, but now the business action is transparent. It is not a delete, it is a decommissioned. And it is not in every entity, just in those that need it.

When we just blindly make everything soft-deletable we obscure these distinctions and encourage developers to not think about these and other similar issues. This hinders domain modelling, as we are thinking more about a CRUD approach rather that a complex domain.


Soft deletes might appear very convenient, but they can be quite deceitful. Not only do they hinder performance, but also obscure your domain logic and your business constraints. I would advise you to stay away from them.

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